Thook Kiir-Piɛnyliɛɛt

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Lenguas nilo-saharianas.PNG

Thook Kiir-Piɛnyliɛɛt (Nilo-Saharan languages) aa macthok jam paan Apirïka tëcït 50-60 tïmëtïm kɔc kiir kɔ̈u ku rëër të thiääk wäär Kairi ku Kiir, agut piny Nubia, parut tɔ̈ të cït Karkarou Kiir tuɔ̈ɔ̈m thïn.

Thook aacë röt cuɔt tënë Thäi 17 alɔŋ aban cam paan Apirïka:

Gɔl cök Alijeria leer Benin alɔŋ pacuɔl, gɔl Libia leer Pankɔc Rielde kɔc Koŋo tɔ̈ ciɛl ku gɔl Ijip leer Tandhania a lɔŋ pabak. Akut kabɛ̈t ci meek pankuany ci kuɛ̈ny bei (ka ciënic Kunama, Kulïak, Songhay) Thoŋgai--aye yök tënë Thääi Yam Karou tɔ̈ Thudän ku Paguot Thudän bë lɔ rëët të yee pïu kiir lɔ thïn cï men cïï yen nyooth tök cök rinyiic Kiir-Piɛnyliɛɛt yen ee macthok Pan Apirïka yic--cimen agördïït kiir tɔ̈ Piɛnyliɛɛt ciɛlic.

Joseph Greenberg acë akut cäk ku kueel yene cäät riɛmic macthok athördeen thɛɛr 1963 ke cɔl thoŋ Paan Apirïka yen alaŋic thook liu Nejer-Koŋo, Aproathia ku tëdeen macthok Koithan yeen acïe rɔt ye thɔ̈ɔ̈ŋ kacït Kiir-Piɛnyliɛɛt aathook akut cäätrimic ŋic keek ku ka ci dupiööc thook tïŋ ëbɛ̈n thoŋkuat "Akup Greenberg" yen thook lɛɛi këc gɔ̈t paan Apirïka nyiääŋ thïn. Ayee kɔc ye wɛtde piŋ gam nadɛ̈ ke kee luɔɔi ril ku ka lëu bë looi ɣɔndɛ̈.

Keek akut pankuany Kiir-Piɛnyliɛɛt ë yam luɔ̈ɔ̈p yam Apirïka, cimen amatnhom Pabak Thudän aye tïŋ ke cït rɔt looi tëcït tïmëtïm 5/BC ruɔ̈ɔ̈n këc bänyda dhiɛ̈ɛ̈th amatcialëriɛmic Kiir-Piɛnyliɛɛt adhil nyooth këc luɔ̈p thɛɛr nhialdööt.

Guïïr atɛ̈ktɛ̈k dïït kënë aŋyoot akëc gam kɔc thook, ketɛ̈ɛ̈n Glottolog 2013 anyooth. Tɛk piny athör raancɔl Max Planck panpiööc pan Jermani, aci ye nyiɛc yen mac amɛtmɛɛt Kiir-Piɛnyliɛɛt gut kar pabak Thudän waar aci këër.

Lexical comparison[cokic | cok tënëyökic]

Starostin (2014, 2017):[1][2]

Pronouns and numerals[cokic | cok tënëyökic]

family language I thou we what who not one two
Thuɔŋjäŋ ɣɛn ɣook ŋö ŋa akec tök rou
Berta p-Berta *àlì *ŋgo *=/a/ŋ/a/ *naN *nda *ɗuɠu- *kolaŋ
Kunama p-Kunama *a-ba *e-na *á-; *kì- *ay *no *-m-; *-n- *él- *baːr-
Maba p-Maba *a-(mɔ) *y *m-i *ŋV *na *an *to *mbaːr
Fur Fur ka ʓi k-i ka ki a... ba tok aw
Central Sudanic p-Moru-Madi *m=ā *m=ī ~ *ɲ=ī *à=mā *aɗʊ *aɗɪ *kʊ̄ *àlʊ̄ *irì
Central Sudanic p-Lendu-Ngiti *mā *ɲī *mǎ *=ɗū *=ɗī; *íē *ì=nz- *aɗɪ ~ *aɗ̣ɪ *ārʸɔ̄
Central Sudanic p-Mangbetu *m=á *m=í *à=mà *as/i/ *aɗi *kà *k=ànà *s=o(C)ru
Central Sudanic p-Mangbutu *u=mu *i=ni *a=mu *a-ʓi *a-ɗe *ŋgi-; *ra- *eɗi *=ɖ=uwe
Central Sudanic p-Sara-Bongo-Bagirmi *m=a *i *ʓɛ *ɗi *ye *nTe; *ale *k=aɗe *riyo
Central Sudanic p-Kresh *a=m=a *u=mu *a-ga *a=ŋa *a=ni; *ɓi [*ɖi] *ɓir
Central Sudanic Aja m=a mu-mu a=m=a ɔ=ro ɔ=ŋɔ gu bira
Central Sudanic Birri m=á mu m=áː wa ŋa ɕa ìlá ukw=aːri
Songhay p-Songhay *ay ~ *agay *ni *yé-ɾì *máy *ma(-) *si; *na *foː *híŋká
Saharan p-Kanuri *wu *ní *y₁-andi *à=bí *ndú *bâ; *ni *tilo *(ì)ndí
Saharan p-Tubu *ta- *n(ǝ)- *ta- *in=ni *ɲa *bV; *ni *tǝro *kyu
Saharan p-Zaghawa-Berti *s₁- *n(V) *t- *n-(tɪ) *n-(aɪ) *-ɔ ~ *-ba *nakkɔ; *saN *su
Koman p-Koman *a=ga *a=i *a=ma; *a=na *tin-; *bi *a=di *ɗɛ *sʊ-
Gule Gule aː=na á=núːk éːdè ɛːde dì=dí-n du=su-it
Gumuz p-Gumuz *=da *=ma *kwa; *ila *in=c- *wod- *=ke *m(=)eta *m=band
Kadu p-Kadu *aʔa *oʔo *a=ŋa; *a=yo *m=ina *m=at̪a *t̪a; *aŋ *ŋɔʈɔ; *iŋwa *ari-a
Shabo Shabo tiŋ ku yiŋ; an na-mbi na-fe be iŋki bab
Eastern Sudanic p-Nubian *ǝ-y *e(-y) *a-y ₁ *nWV- ₁ *ŋǝ-y ₁ *-a- ₁; *-mVn₂ *bɛy(i)r *awr-i ₁
Eastern Sudanic p-SW Surmic *an(-ɛta) *in(-eta) *a-g- ₁ *nI- ₁ *ŋɛnɛ ₁ *ŋa ₃; *(k)VRoŋ *oɗo-i ₁ *ram(m)a ₂
Eastern Sudanic p-SE Surmic *an-ɛ *in-e *a-g- ₁ *oŋ *nɪnɛ ₁ *ŋa ₃; *-oŋ *ɗo(-)ne ₁ *raman ₂
Eastern Sudanic Majang ɛ̀ːt, č=aː-k íːn ìt-ìŋk ǯík wóɗ ku- ~ kwa- ₄ òmò-ŋ pèːy
Eastern Sudanic Nara ag iŋa a-gg-a ₁ nda (←ende=ha) na(-n) ₁ ka ₄; ma ₂ doko ari(-ga) ₁
Eastern Sudanic p-Jebel *a(y) ₁ *i(y) ₁ *ay(-ga) ₁ *ɲi ₁ *ŋa ₁ *a= ₁; *wǝ(l) *ligi; *ta(m) *waC-; *ɖag
Eastern Sudanic p-Nyimang *ay ₁ *í ₁ *ay-g- ₁ *(a)ŋi ₁ *ŋa ₁ *fa *ɲala *ar(m)-(ba)- ₁
Eastern Sudanic p-Temein *n=a-n ₁ *n=ɪ-n ₁ *k=a-t̪ ₁ *ŋa-i ₁ *ŋa-nɪ ₁ *ʓa=... -ŋ ₃ *k=ɪɖ(ɔ)- ₂ *k=aro ₁
Eastern Sudanic p-Tama *wa *i ₁ *wa-(y)i *num *na ₁ *-to *ku- ~ *ka- ₃ *wari ₁
Eastern Sudanic p-Daju *a-ga ₁ *i-gi ₁ *ko *ɗi-; *way *min-; *Ken *-ba ₅; *-ŋ(V) ₃ *no- *pidaX
Eastern Sudanic p-W Nilotic *(ʔiy=)aː-(n/ɪ/) ₁ *ʔiː-(n) ₁ *ʔɔ-(n) *ŋo ₁ *ŋa ₁ *bV ₅; *kV ₄ *kyɛl *=rɪaw ₁
Eastern Sudanic p-E Nilotic *(n=)a(-n/ɪ/) ₁ *ɪ-yyɔ ₁ *yi- ~ *=yoː- *ɲɔ ₁ *ŋa ₁ *m-₂; *ɲ- ₃; *ti *bo-; *pe- *arɛ ₁
Eastern Sudanic p-S Nilotic *a-ni ₁ *i-ɲ ₁ *ɛ-ɕa ₁ *ne ₁ *ŋo ~ *ŋʌ ₁ *ma ₂ *a=kɪ ₃ *ʌ=ʀi-ɛŋ ₁
Kuliak p-Kuliak *kV-; *ay ₁ *bi *gin; *mis *e; *isi *ke; *do *n- ₃; *m- ₂ *ɛd ₂ *lɛmˀɛc

Län/Tim[cokic | cok tënëyökic]

family language bird dog louse tree leaf meat egg horn tail
Thuɔŋjäŋ dit jöŋ nyɔ̈k tim yär rïŋ tuɔŋ tuŋ yɔ̈l
Berta p-Berta *mìɕˀé *gàlì *ɗiːɲi *ŋgole; *ɕˀiɕˀi *dùːdù *uʔuŋ *kúlkúlú *búlùŋ *àbàrò
Kunama p-Kunama *šurk-; *eːt- *tay- *ɕiːl- *èl- *durf- *ɲuw- *kokin- *giːʀ- *šiːm-
Maba p-Maba *kuši *iɲ(i) *mese *sʌŋge *səŋa *ɲu(ɲu) *kade-m- *gami *ɔlu
Fur Fur *=ya asa n=ina-ŋ kuru d=alma-ŋ n=iːno *=iro- d=olba d=awi
Central Sudanic p-Moru-Madi *àrī *ɔ̀kɛ́ *òrí *kwɛ̄ *bí *èzā *ɓú *ōˀyú *āví
Central Sudanic p-Lendu-Ngiti *àrɛ̀ *ìсē *sī (*sʊ̄ ?) *icu *bɪ *ìzā *īɓī *ōʔyó ~ *ɔ̄ʔyʊ́ *ávì
Central Sudanic p-Mangbetu *áríꜜ *=esi *=tì *=kɪrɛ; *=wò *=bɪ *ɲíꜜɲíꜜ *ɓu *=ígá *=ávìꜛ
Central Sudanic p-Mangbutu *k=ari *iɓu *t=ɔta *ukpa *ibi *ura *iɓu *k=aʓu *t=aʓa
Central Sudanic p-Sara-Bongo-Bagirmi *ʔyalɪ *bisi *ŋgisa *k=aga *mbi *i=ɖa *ɓU; *kaɓV *k=aʓU *=ila
Central Sudanic p-Kresh *sisi *k=ɔnɔ *kpi-kpi [*a=ta] *yaka; *ɓo-ɓu *aʓa *kuyu
Central Sudanic Aja weri ɕ=ino ɕi-ɕi umbú a=ʔi deɽe so-so
Central Sudanic Birri uɖa ana kpi kàká ɓʌ uðö
Songhay p-Songhay *kiɾo *há(y)nsì *gáːní *tuguɾi *kobto *ham(u) *guŋguɾi *hilli *ha(m)fe
Saharan p-Kanuri *ŋgúdò *kə́rì *k(=)àŋgə́sù *k(=)èsgá *kálú *dâ *ŋgə́wúl *k(=)àŋgádì *ŋgàv(-)ə̀rè
Saharan p-Tubu *kefuri *kidi *masko *ekke *kolu *yani *sǝli; *kuli *yayi *fudi
Saharan p-Zaghawa-Berti *tarfo *biɽi *(ʔɛ)wɛN *gu; *bɛgɪdʊ [*ʔɔ(ŋ)ɣʊr] *ʔeni *gʊnʊ *tɛdɪ [*kɛrɛn]; [*teski]
Koman p-Koman *ɗi ~ *ɗiu *kˀaw *šu(kˀ)- *čwa *čˀe- *Sum *simpˀ; *om- *kwap; *ke- *cin
Gule Gule a=dadamit aːw ki wɔt fum is íːgà sisi-n
Gumuz p-Gumuz *mit- *kˀawa *sukun- *gi- *cˀe-n-gi *bičˀ- *iš- *gi- *ci-
Kadu p-Kadu *awi- ~ *wayi- *eːra *=it̪i *afa; *=aːɗi *ʈaːru *=oːɗa *sule *=iːt̪o *iːt̪i
Shabo Shabo holut kaːn nɛnna kˀona ɕˀaːm tutukan kˀare sun-dum
Eastern Sudanic p-Nubian *kawir-ti ₁ *bǝl *iti-di *pǝr *ulgi (?) *kosi *kumbu *ŋǝ-ǯi ₁ *ɛːb ₁
Eastern Sudanic p-SW Surmic *kiɓʌlli- ₁ *ʊr-ð *iɲa-(ti) ₁ *kɛː-t(a) ₁ *ɓʌl(l)og- ₁ *iɗi(-)ŋ *ɓʊːr- ₁ *ot̪t̪on *kuːl- ₂
Eastern Sudanic p-SE Surmic *kVbar₁; *šɔwa *ro-s- *iɲ-tyo ₁ *kɛ-to ₁ *ɓalog- ₁ *aču(k) *bur(r)- ₁ *kˀer(ǯ-); *šɛ- *kur- ₂
Eastern Sudanic Majang tìːtòn wár ₁ ŋɛ̀tí-ŋ kɛ̀ː-t ₁ píːŋòn ₂ táàr tùtù-kán kòytɛ́ kùːl ₂
Eastern Sudanic Nara karba ₁ wos ₂ šiti kel, (*tum) tifin-i ₃ no war-i ₂ kel-i dawa
Eastern Sudanic p-Jebel *miCˀe *a(ː)ɖ; *kal- (?) *ɠiɲ- ₂ *ka(y)ča; *gul- *teːpa ₃ *oʔoɲ ₁ *ǝm-; *kol(o)- *kuzul; *il *pori; *rusu
Eastern Sudanic p-Nyimang *ór *wil ₁; *gil *(ŋ)un- ₃ *t̪úmà *kɔ; *lawa (?) *kun *dámì *gur-t̪i *wey- (?)
Eastern Sudanic p-Temein *=awɛ ₂ *=we- *marɛŋ *kabo (?) *ini ~ *ili ₁ *war- ₂ *kini ₂ *rɪŋ-kak
Eastern Sudanic p-Tama *wegi-t *wes-i ₂ *sin; *ɲiŋ- ₃ *ga(ː)n *afol *is- *kuy-; *kob- *ŋaw-₁; *maŋi- *gawu- (?)
Eastern Sudanic p-Daju *awa-de ₂ *iːs- ₂ *tiŋgaɣ- *ewe *une- *iye ₂ *ola- *yax- *iːb- ₁
Eastern Sudanic p-W Nilotic *wɪɲ ₃; *dit *gwok *ɲwʌk- ₄ *yaːt̪ / *yɛn ₁ *yit̪ *riŋ ₃ *tɔŋ *tuːŋ *yip ₁; *yol
Eastern Sudanic p-E Nilotic *k̚weɲ- ₃ *=ŋɔk ₃; *ɗi- *=ɬaɕ-; *=sɪrʊ *k̚aye(-t-/-n-) ₁ *=k̚uy-; *=ben-₂ *ki=riŋ ₃ *k̚atɪl- *ŋuwar-
Eastern Sudanic p-S Nilotic *tarɪːt *ŋoːk ₃ *ɲɔk- ₄ *k̚eːt ₁ *sɛːŋ- *paɲ *buruŋ- ₁; *kɔy- *kuyin ₂ *sarʊr
Kuliak p-Kuliak *gʷa *kudo; *sak *ɠay ~ *ɠɛn ₂ *ad; *dakʷ *kak; *rɔm *em; *yey ₂ *ɓiɓ *ɛb *tisit

Body parts (upper)[cokic | cok tënëyökic]

family language head hair eye ear nose tooth tongue mouth
Thuɔŋjäŋ nhom nhiɛ̈m nyɔ̈k nyin wum lëc liɛp thok
Berta p-Berta *àlú *bùs *àrè *ìlè *àmúŋ *kàlàː ~ *kàlèː *ndu
Kunama p-Kunama *aŋan- *kiːm- *uw- *ukun- *bobon- *may- *ŋeːl- *wid-
Maba p-Maba *kiʓi *tofi *kas(i) *kɔy- *mundu *saTi *=dilm- *kana
Fur Fur tabu ɲiːlu *=uŋi *=il- d=ormi d=agi d=aːli uto
Central Sudanic p-Moru-Madi *ɖì *ɓɪ *mī *bí *ɔmvɔ *sí *l=ɛ(n)ɖa *tī
Central Sudanic p-Lendu-Ngiti *ʓɔ *ká *ɲɪ *bɪ *ɔ̄ndì *=ku *īdà *=cʊ̀ ~ *=cɔ̀
Central Sudanic p-Mangbetu *ɖùꜛ *áwɛ́ *=ŋgɔ̀ *=bí *=ámɔ̀ꜛ *=kí *=àꜛɖàꜛ *=tíꜜ
Central Sudanic p-Mangbutu *uɖu *k=aɗi *uwe *ubi *t=ɔŋgi *usɛ *k=aɖu *uti
Central Sudanic p-Sara-Bongo-Bagirmi *ɖɔ *bi *kamU *mbi *U=mU *sU; *ŋaŋa *n=ɖɛ *ta[-ra]
Central Sudanic p-Kresh *ʓu-ʓu *bi-bi *mu *mbi-mbi *u=ŋu *ɕe-ɕe *n=ʓa àkpà
Central Sudanic Aja ʓu-ʓu bi-bi i=ɲi mi-mbi mú-mú u=ku ndi-ndyi
Central Sudanic Birri ɖru nvö í=mɔ̀ ì=nɖrɔ́ tyi
Songhay p-Songhay *baŋgɔ *hambiɾi *moy *haŋga *nìːnè *hìŋè *dèːnè *miye
Saharan p-Kanuri *kə̀lâ *ku(=)nduli *sîm *sə́mò *kə́(=)nǯà *tímì *t(ə́)lam *kǝyi
Saharan p-Tubu *da(h)u *tọnosu *samo *simo *kya *tome *tlǝm *kɔi
Saharan p-Zaghawa-Berti *tafa; *yaNV *(w)ui; *wer *s₁ɪN *kɛmɛ *sɪna ~ *sano *margɪ; *ʔikoN *tam(ɪ)sɪ *ʔaː
Koman p-Koman *kˀup *mbar- *ya/y/- *čˀe *šʊnš *šɛ(y) *lɛtˀ; *tˀakal *tˀwa
Gule Gule gàdé ʔif yaː-n iːg-ǝn fufa-n seː-n adatˀ-wai ʔitə-n
Gumuz p-Gumuz *ilu=kˀ/ʷ/a *beː- *ke- *cˀe- *it- *kˀos- *kˀo=tˀatˀ- *=s-
Kadu p-Kadu *=at̪u *awu *=yV *=ɛːsɔ *=mbarɔ; *=moː *=ki(-)ni *=ŋaɗɔ *=iːno
Shabo Shabo kˀoyi ɕˀeːka se kˀiti šona k(ˀ)aw handa kaw
Eastern Sudanic p-Nubian *or ₁ *dɛl- *miɲ ₁ *ulgi *esi-ŋi; *sori-ŋ *ɲǝl- ₁ *ɲalT- ₁ *agul ₁
Eastern Sudanic p-SW Surmic *ɔː *immʌ ₁ *kɛbɛr-ɛ ₂ *i-t̪a(t) ₁ *ʊŋɛ- ₁ *ɲɪgɪt ₂ *ʌgʌːt ₂ *ʊt̪ʊ(-)k ₂
Eastern Sudanic p-SE Surmic *sab(b)- *čˀɔrɛ *kabar-i ₂ *ɲab- *giroŋ *ɲigi ₂ *kaːt ₂ *tuk ₂
Eastern Sudanic Majang ɔ̀ːɗɔ̀h àm-ùn ₁ tàːmá wìːná ₂ ɛ́ŋɛ́-n ₁ ŋídá-n kàɗà ₂ átó ₂
Eastern Sudanic Nara kel-e sab-i no tus demo nihi haga awlo
Eastern Sudanic p-Jebel *ola ₁ *ǯeke ₂; *sugu- *eti *sigi-; *win- ₂ *potor; *muː ₂ *ɲigi ₂ *kala(-di) *Ud- ₂
Eastern Sudanic p-Nyimang *ɔr- ₁ *yi- *āŋ(w)- ₃ *ɲɔgɔr- *(a)ŋud̪- *ŋil- ₁ *ŋal(d)- ₁; *ɔl- *ŋal-
Eastern Sudanic p-Temein *=ʊlo ₁ *ʓɛ-t̪ ₂ *=aŋ- ~ *=aɲ- ₃ *wen(-a) ₂ *=mɪn- ~ *=t̪ɪm- *=ay- *=kanɖɪma- *=t̪ʊ- ~ *=ʊt̪- ₂
Eastern Sudanic p-Tama *(ŋ=)ur- ₁ *isigi-t *emeɲ- ₁ *(ŋ=)us- *(a=)miʓi *ŋeʓ- *laɲa- *(o=)kul ₁
Eastern Sudanic p-Daju *is- ₂ *apaɣ *aŋo- ₃ *une- ₂ *mu-ne ₂ *ɲiɣi ₂ *ɲabir-e *uk-e ₃
Eastern Sudanic p-W Nilotic *wiɕ ₂ *yer *waŋ ₃ *yi-t̪ ₁ *ʔum ₂ *lak / *lɛk *lɛ(ː)p *t̪ɔk ₂
Eastern Sudanic p-E Nilotic *k̚we ₂ *k̚opir- *k̚ɔŋ- / *k̚ɔɲ- ₃ *k̚i- ₁ *k̚ume ₂ *k̚ela- ₃ *ŋaʓɛp *kʊ=tʊk ₂
Eastern Sudanic p-S Nilotic *met; *uːʀ ₁ *puːt *k̚ɔːŋ ₃ *iː-t ₁ *ser- *k̚ɛːɬ- ₃ *ŋaɬɛp *k̚ʊːt ₂
Kuliak p-Kuliak *ik *sicˀ *ɛkʷ *bos ~ *bes *ɲab-; *aɠat *kʷay- *nakˀaf; *ɛdɛɓ *ak ₃

Body parts (other)[cokic | cok tënëyökic]

family language hand claw (nail) foot heart blood bone
Thuɔŋjäŋ nhiɛ̈m riöp cök puɔ̈u riɛm yuɔɔm
Berta p-Berta *tàbá *máːɕù *kùː *bìɕí *ɠápà *kˀàːrà
Kunama p-Kunama *kon- *ikiN-; *uɕum- *mind- *ulf- *kokob- *saŋ-
Maba p-Maba *kara *ŋgirm- *ǯaw; *daw- *kuli *fal-; *ari *kanʓi
Fur Fur *=oŋa ka(ː)ru taːr k=ilma *=ewa *=aːru
Central Sudanic p-Moru-Madi *ɖí *ɔ́ɲí *pá *ásí *àrī *kwà
Central Sudanic p-Lendu-Ngiti *ɔ̄cʊ́; *(V)θɔ́ *=/V/kɔ́; *=pɔ̀ *=āθí *āžū *=kpa
Central Sudanic p-Mangbetu *=tɛ́ *=ɛ́ꜜwɛ́ꜜ *=ɔ́ꜜnzɔ́ꜜ *=ísúꜜ *áli *=kpɔ̀ꜛ
Central Sudanic p-Mangbutu *eɗi ~ *aɗi *k=aru *ɓoru *k=otu *ikpi
Central Sudanic p-Sara-Bongo-Bagirmi *ʓi *ɲal (?) *=nɖi ~ *nʓa *ŋguL *ma=ma *ɕʊŋɔ
Central Sudanic p-Kresh [*rɛke] *kakpi (?) [*laga] [*suru] *Usa *kpɔ-kpɔ
Central Sudanic Aja ruɓu kiŋgbi kaɕa mágú usa ɕuŋgu
Central Sudanic Birri iɲi =isi uŋgba ɔtɔ kpɔ
Songhay p-Songhay *kambe *boyo *ke (← *kaw-i?) *binɛ *kúɾí *biɾi
Saharan p-Kanuri *(N=)doko *ŋgur- *sî *k(=)aɣur(ǝ)ɣǝ *bû *sílà
Saharan p-Tubu *kɔbɛ *turkɔn(o) *say; *digi *aɣɔr *gɔrɛ *suru
Saharan p-Zaghawa-Berti *mai *targʊ; *ergiN *dei; *wata *todu *ʔagu *s₁iruN
Koman p-Koman *mbitˀ *čˀikir *čoŋkˀ *сˀama *swi
Gule Gule bitˀɛ-n =gamaːl suma-n gɔ=ʓɔb fiː-fi
Gumuz p-Gumuz *el- *kˀwa=cic- *čog- *kˀu=bic- *m(=)ax- *žok-
Kadu p-Kadu *=iːso *laːka; *ŋgoro *aw- *=nug- *a=rit̪o *kuɓa
Shabo Shabo efu ~ ifu seŋgi biɕɕa dundet yɛrom emenan
Eastern Sudanic p-Nubian *ǝsi ₁ *suŋ-di *oy- (*os-?) *ail- *ǝger *kǝsi-di
Eastern Sudanic p-SW Surmic *ʌði ₁ *vallag- ₁ *ðoː- *ðini ₁ *ɓɪyɛ *ammɛ- ₁
Eastern Sudanic p-SE Surmic *si(y)- ₁ *falag- ₁ *ǯagar- *šan(-i) ₁ *ɲa(ː)ɓ- *giɠ-
Eastern Sudanic Majang *ʔàrì čò=pòlk-òy ₁ ɗèrà-n ɓàːyè ₂ yɛ́rʊ́m ɛ́mɛ̀-nán ₁
Eastern Sudanic Nara aːt ši bala asim-a ₃ kito ket-i
Eastern Sudanic p-Jebel *čarʸo; *as ₁ *mVsi *luː- *iyo; *Pon *ɠefa(-di) *ɠam
Eastern Sudanic p-Nyimang *ayi ₂; *at̪a *fál- *kir- ₁ *t̪ilum *úlè *ám- ₁
Eastern Sudanic p-Temein *=ɛn(-a) ₃ *=ol- *=alwa- (?) *om (?) ₄ *moni- *am- ₁
Eastern Sudanic p-Tama *awg- *ŋosa- *war *samil- ₃ *ya-i *kiŋa-ti
Eastern Sudanic p-Daju *a-n- / *a-s- ₂ *ɲuɣ- *eɣe- *=omigaɣ- ₄ *tami- *ŋay
Eastern Sudanic p-W Nilotic *ɕɪn- *rop-; *kʊr- *kɪːr ₁ *pyɛw- (?) ₂ *rɪm ₁ *ɕog-
Eastern Sudanic p-E Nilotic *k̚ay- ₂ *k̚ɛʓ- / *moko- *taw- *=akɔt; *rɪm- ₁ *k̚ɔyʊ
Eastern Sudanic p-S Nilotic *k̚aː-tit ₂ *pu(ː)l-; *sɪːʀ *k̚ɛːɬ *(mu)kuleːl *k̚ʌrʌtiː-; *woːy- *k̚ʌːw- ₂
Kuliak p-Kuliak *kʷɛt; *an ₃ *kɔrɔk; *sak *tɛgʷ *gur *sɛ(ʔ) *ɔk ₂

Verbs[cokic | cok tënëyökic]

family language drink eat hear die kill
Thuɔŋjäŋ dek cam piŋ thou nɔ̈k
Berta p-Berta *méːr- *tìŋ *kàːl- *múɕ- *pi/y/-
Kunama p-Kunama *=no *=ŋa *=tik- *=tu *=yay-
Maba p-Maba *aŋ *ɲɔ *in- *ɔy *uy-
Fur Fur *ba *=am kel-am *way fu-
Central Sudanic p-Moru-Madi *mbū *ɲā *=rí *ɖà *fū
Central Sudanic p-Lendu-Ngiti *=mbʊ̀ *ɔ̄=ɲʊ̀ ~ *ɔ̄=ɲɔ̀ *ī=rī *=ðɛ̀ *ō=fó ~ *(ɔ)=fɪ
Central Sudanic p-Mangbetu *=ɔmvu-ɔ *=aɲɔ *=ɔ̀gà *=onzi *=ɔfʊ
Central Sudanic p-Mangbutu *a=mvu *a=nu *=ŋgɪ *=nde *=fu
Central Sudanic p-Sara-Bongo-Bagirmi *à=wɛ̄ (=yɛ̄ ?) *V=ɲʊ; *u=sa *=wo *=yo *=pʊ
Central Sudanic p-Kresh *ɔ=mɔ *ɔ=ɕɔ *o=go *ili *=fu
Central Sudanic Aja a=mu a=ɲ a=yi iri a=pʌʔi
Central Sudanic Birri a=ya ɔ=ɲɔ ša ayi à=wì
Songhay p-Songhay *nin; *haŋ *ŋwa *maw *bún *wi
Saharan p-Kanuri *yá *bú *fàn- *nú *yid-
Saharan p-Tubu *ya *bu *bas- *nɔ-s *yid-
Saharan p-Zaghawa-Berti *ya- *sɛ- *tan- *nʊ- *ni-
Koman p-Koman *pi-; *tˀob- *šwa *čikʰ-; *kˀeb- *wVy *kˀoš-
Gule Gule si mə-s gìdɛ́s =wɔi =tɔs
Gumuz p-Gumuz *f/a/ *s/a/ *gas- *š/a/ *ša-kˀ/ʷ/-
Kadu p-Kadu *a=wɛ *a=ku *=fiɲo *a=yV *=t̪aː-
Shabo Shabo wo tˀa ɛɕɛt kˀo ka
Eastern Sudanic p-Nubian *niː- *kɔl- ₁ *gi(ǯ)- *diː- ₁ *pay-ir
Eastern Sudanic p-SW Surmic *kʊɗ- *ɗak- *ðig- ₁ *ir- ₂ *rʊk
Eastern Sudanic p-SE Surmic *mat- ₁ / *ir- *am- ₂ / *us- *šig- ₁ *ɛr- ₂ *in-
Eastern Sudanic Majang út- ɗám- ₃ tíy- reː-r- ₃ ɓòkòt- ₁
Eastern Sudanic Nara liː- ₂ kal ₁ wo-s-; esel- diː- ₁ si- (←*say-?)₂
Eastern Sudanic p-Jebel *maʈ- ₁ *ɲam- *eːr-; *piŋ- *tugir *poz(i)
Eastern Sudanic p-Nyimang *li ₂; *d̪a(y)i *tam ₃ / *t̪=(k)al *ki(l)d- *lu- ₃ *ni
Eastern Sudanic p-Temein *awɪs- *lam- *t̪ɔŋʷ- *bu(l)- *ɔt̪u
Eastern Sudanic p-Tama *li- ₂ *ŋan-; *gey- *sig- ₁ *iye- *siy/ɲ- ₂; *yi-
Eastern Sudanic p-Daju *wuɣ- *si- *suw- (?) *ǝɣ(s)- *pax- ₁
Eastern Sudanic p-W Nilotic *maːd̪- ₁ *ɕam- *wiɲʓ-; *t̪iŋ- *t̪ɔw- ₁ *nʌk-
Eastern Sudanic p-E Nilotic *=mat- ₁ *=ɲi-; *=am- ₂ *=niŋ-; *=yɪŋ- ₂ *twa- ₁; *yɛ- *=ar
Eastern Sudanic p-S Nilotic *ʀɛ ₂ *am ₂ *iːɲ ₂; *kas *mɛːʀ *par-; *nuːs-
Kuliak p-Kuliak *wɛt *n(V)kʼ-; *gab- *Nis- *ɲal-; *geɕ- *kɛy-

Ŋiɛ̈ckanhial/Piööckätöupiny[cokic | cok tënëyökic]

family language sun moon star water rain stone smoke fire ashes
Thuɔŋjäŋ akɔ̈l pɛɛi kuel piu deŋ kuɔ̈r - mac col
Berta p-Berta *mù(n)ʓú *ʓìgì *íʒ́ù *pèrì *rôː *bèlè *ɗùːtà *mû *bùbùdà
Kunama p-Kunama *uw- *teːʀ- *šund- *bi- *ŋoːr- *ug- *duːd- *tom- *(h)ay-na
Maba p-Maba *aɲi-ŋ- *aɲi-ɛ- *kɛyɛ *s₁aː *s₁aː *komʌ *uruŋi *nusʊ *ʔawun
Fur Fur d(=)ule d=uwal wiri k=oro kwi d=ito suːl *utu diː
Central Sudanic p-Moru-Madi *ìtú *ìmbā *ɓɪɓɪ *igi *ɔ̄zɛ̄; *ɓu *írà; *óní *kà *ācí *ɔ̄=fò
Central Sudanic p-Lendu-Ngiti *āʒ́ī *àbī *ʒ́ʊ̄; *lī *ɪɗa *īʓē *ōʓū *ɪkɔ *k=àzʊ̄ *ōhū
Central Sudanic p-Mangbetu *=iko *=aŋgwɛ *=tulu *=gwò *=k=ʊma *=óꜜpíꜜ *=kɔ *=ago *ápùꜛ
Central Sudanic p-Mangbutu *Oyi *t=imba *r=iɓi ~ *ɓi-ɓi *uwe *t=iɓo *k=ina *t=enu *akɔ *t=ɛdu
Central Sudanic p-Sara-Bongo-Bagirmi *k=aɖa *napay ~ *lapay *KɛL- *m=anɛ *n=ɖi *ku *sa *paɗʊ *buru
Central Sudanic p-Kresh *=aʓa *ɕe-ɕe *ɛpɛ *u=yu *n=ʓi *aŋba *ka-ka *oɕo *reka
Central Sudanic Aja k=údyò kápá ŋgʌ́dʌ́ ɓa-ɓa ɓa-ɓa gìsí kó-kó uɕa kuku
Central Sudanic Birri uɖrà áfí daŋgi wu n=ɖri aŋbà ka-ka usi kuvu-tu
Songhay p-Songhay *wayn-i/o *handi/u *hand-aɾi *(h)áɾí *kiliŋgi *tóndì *dullu *nunE; *huɾu *bóːsí
Saharan p-Kanuri *kǝ(=)ŋgâl *kə́=mbàl *sim-logu *ŋgî *dùr-o *k(=)âu *k(=)àngê *k(=)ánnú *buː
Saharan p-Tubu *ize *awri *teski *(i)yi *ŋeli *emi *ǝzzi *wuni *tifi; *wuni-
Saharan p-Zaghawa-Berti *ʔɪdɔN(V) *wɛrɪ *maːr *bi *mVzVN; *bodu *fa; *wi *gɛnǯʊ; *do *y(i)e; *aza *sobu
Koman p-Koman *tay *ɕˀiawan *kɛl *ayi ~ *yiʔi *ɔš *kuɗ *antˀ; *watˀi *pˀiki-n
Gule Gule taʔ àyún kèːlú aːye rus ɔf ʓurɛd kəs ufu-n
Gumuz p-Gumuz *ok- *ɓigi- *biːž- *ay- *dam- *giš- *ɗakˀ/ʷ/- *m(=)angi *=of-
Kadu p-Kadu *aya *t̪arɛ *=at̪iki *ɓiːt̪i *=fVɗɔ; *ni *=isi ~ *=usi *ʈiːko *isi *=ʈoːlo
Shabo Shabo oka kasip roːga wo ɗimu maːna ɕˀimbu ɕ(ˀ)uwa punkˀa
Eastern Sudanic p-Nubian *maša(l); *eːs- *(ɲ)un- *waɲe (*oɲe?) ₁ *ǝs-ti *are ₁ *kuli *gume-di *usi-gi ₁ *ubur-ti ₁
Eastern Sudanic p-SW Surmic *iː; *kɔr *ɲɛlɔ-k *muɲuɲ- ₂ *maːm ₁ *ta(m)mu *ɓɛy- *ɓure-t ₁ *gu-o ₂ *bur ₁
Eastern Sudanic p-SE Surmic *sus *tagi-s(i) *muɲuɲ- ₂ *ma ₁ *guy-ot ₂ *bay-i *ɓure- ₁ *gu- ₂ *bur ₁
Eastern Sudanic Majang wàwì, ? iɗi ɛ̀ːyɛ̀n ₁ màrìò-n máːw ₁ tùl gìɗè tɔ̀ːr ₂ má(-)ɗ ₃ tàɗàpù ₂
Eastern Sudanic Nara kos feta wini ₁ mba ₁ hala tan-e asuru ši(-)ta ₁ hib(-)id
Eastern Sudanic p-Jebel *biːdi; *tel *turi; *aguwa *mbaǯU(rʸ) *pe- ₂; *či *koyi ₂ *mi(d); *pela *purʸu ₁; *ɲugu *moʔa ₃ *tudo ₂
Eastern Sudanic p-Nyimang *ɲiŋ *k(e)wur *midi *bɔ́ŋ *ar-iŋ- ₁ *mid-; *mVr- *ŋɛši; *los- *mér *fin(-)an
Eastern Sudanic p-Temein *n(ɪ)=onu(-k) *kaw *ɖuli- ₃ *=mʊŋ *n̚o(-)k *kʊrɛ-t̪ *kɪ=t̪ʊmʊ(-k) *paɖɪŋ *ul(u)- ₃
Eastern Sudanic p-Tama *ari *ayi(-wi)- ₁ *miɲ- ₂ *kaːl *ar ₁; *ŋoːri *kad- *turu- ₂ *usg- ₁ *or-ŋo ₃
Eastern Sudanic p-Daju *uɣoŋ-e *asime-ɣe *ɲeŋ- *ama ~ *uma ₁ *koɣ- *ŋaɲ *lug-e *maːse ₃ *usuku-
Eastern Sudanic p-W Nilotic *ɕʌŋ *pay *kwɛl ₄; *ɕɛːr *piː ~ *piw ₂ *kɔt̪ *pʌːm; *kid- *yir- ₃; *tol *maːɕ ₃ *buːr ₁
Eastern Sudanic p-E Nilotic *k̚ɔlɔŋ *ɬapaɬ *k̚akɛr- *pi ₂ *k̚uʓ- *mɔr- *puri- ₁ *kɪ=ma ₃ *k̚uri-o- ₃
Eastern Sudanic p-S Nilotic *asɪːs ~ *asɛːt *ɬeː-ta *mɛːŋ ₂; *k̚ɔkɛl ₄ *peʀ- *rɔːp *kɔʀ *iːʀ ₃ *ma ₃ *ɔr- ₃
Kuliak p-Kuliak *gi; *pet *aragʷan; *asan *ɗɔɬ- ₃ *kʷɪɛh *war; *didi *gʷas; *sɔg *cˀud; *ar *dakʷ; *cˀaɗ *ukʷ; *kaw-

Adjectives and others[cokic | cok tënëyökic]

family language black night new dry name
Thuɔŋjäŋ col wɛr nyal buoŋ rin
Berta p-Berta *mìlí *kabi *kòɕàl- *kùː
Kunama p-Kunama *um- *taːm- *=lab- *kiːd-
Maba p-Maba *du(ː) *ise *ŋɔndi *bǝy *meli
Fur Fur diko luːl =iwwo futto k=ona
Central Sudanic p-Moru-Madi *i=ni *ŋgákī *ɗí *ʔʷī *rú
Central Sudanic p-Lendu-Ngiti *tì *īkū *ɔ̄=wʊ́ *=ʔyù *ɔðɔ
Central Sudanic p-Mangbetu *=ɛkʊ *=k=ìꜛnìꜛ *=adi *=onɖu; *=ɛŋgɔ *=rʊ
Central Sudanic p-Mangbutu *=sa *ɓoku *=ɓu *o=nɖi *aɓɛ
Central Sudanic p-Sara-Bongo-Bagirmi *=lu *nɖɔ *i=ʒ́i *tutu; *àfā *ri ~ *ro
Central Sudanic p-Kresh *=iri *nʓo-nʓo [*raŋi] *=aŋa; *=iši *=iri
Central Sudanic Aja iri reɓe ɔŋgko k=iri
Central Sudanic Birri =nɖi ʌtyí žya iri
Songhay p-Songhay *bi *kigi(ni) *tagi *koːg- *man
Saharan p-Kanuri *čə́lə́m *búné *bə̀lîm *ŋgâm- *čû
Saharan p-Tubu *yasku *dọgọso *eski *ŋkyor- *kyu; *čero
Saharan p-Zaghawa-Berti *mɪ̃ɛ̃ *gɪnɪ *ʔɪm(m)ʊ *kʊya- *ʔɛtʊr
Koman p-Koman *cˀi-; *šwala- *cˀin- *ʒɪs *kut̪ˀ
Gule Gule arwu- kə=səmsi =gɔʓ-
Gumuz p-Gumuz *=xiː- *=gak/ʷ/- *kike- *=keʔe- *cˀe-
Kadu p-Kadu *=ɗu; *=luːɲ- *=oːso *=t̪iki *a=rumɛ *yarɛ ~ *ɛrɛ
Shabo Shabo ɕˀiN depu kˀina iːɕˀi; sˀoto wɔŋga-
Eastern Sudanic p-Nubian *ud(m)- *awar ₁; *kol *ɛːr ₁ *sow/y-₁; *siː- *ǝri
Eastern Sudanic p-SW Surmic *kolli ₁ *ɓʌl- ₂ *čʊla(-)k (?) *=ɗɔɗɔg- ₂ *ðaːra ₁
Eastern Sudanic p-SE Surmic *kɔrɔy ₁ *bar- (*ɓ-) ₂ *čagi *ɗɔrɔgɔ- ₂ *sarya ₁
Eastern Sudanic Majang kɔ̀yʊ́ŋ káːy ₃ (ìn)tɔ̀ːn pàːlkíŋ ₃ tíríyá
Eastern Sudanic Nara sur-ku ₂ kiše wor-ku dise-gu a(ː)d-e ₂
Eastern Sudanic p-Jebel *oro; *du *kay ₃; *oro *yaː- *kekebe; *am- *sa(C)a-
Eastern Sudanic p-Nyimang *=bī- *t̪únì *ɲɛr- *far- ₃ *aŋɛ- ₃
Eastern Sudanic p-Temein *=ʈuʈi- *=ʓoni *=ŋan ₂ *raːri *kalɪŋ
Eastern Sudanic p-Tama *kidi- *war ₁ *(a)suw- *lab- *(ŋ=)at ₂
Eastern Sudanic p-Daju *ʒ́ul ₂ *woŋ- *taʓ- *ka=maːs *aŋg-e ₃
Eastern Sudanic p-W Nilotic *ɕɔːl ₂ *wʌːr ₁ *ɲʌːn ₂ *t̪wɔ ₄ *rɪn ₄
Eastern Sudanic p-E Nilotic *=rwɔ- *k̚ɛwar(-ɪ) ₁ *=ŋeʓu-;*lʊdʊ- *=toy- ₄ *k̚arɪn ₄
Eastern Sudanic p-S Nilotic *tʊʀ *aw- (*aʀ-) *yaːm *k̚aʀɪn ₄
Kuliak p-Kuliak *im-; *buɗam *mir-; *muk- *eruc (?) ₁ *cai- *(y)ed ₂

References[cokic | cok tënëyökic]

  1. Starostin, Georgiy C. 2014. Языки Африки. Опыт построения лексикостатистической классификации. Т. 2: Восточносуданские языки / Languages of Africa: an attempt at a lexicostatistical classification. Volume 2: Eastern Sudanic languages. Moscow: Языки славянской культуры / LRC Press. 736 p.
  2. Starostin, Georgiy C. 2017. Языки Африки. Опыт построения лексикостатистической классификации. Т. 3. Нило-сахарские языки / Languages of Africa: an attempt at a lexicostatistical classification. Volume 3: Nilo-Saharan languages. Moscow: Издательский Дом ЯСК / LRC Press. 840 p. ISBN 978-5-9909114-9-9.